The state of Amazonas is a significant part of the 430,000 km2 that make the Guiana Shield. The relief can classify mostly as low and flat, covered by savannas and forests interrupted by massive, many of the formation known as "Tepuis".
The Valleys of Manapiare, Gran Sabana Ventuari lowland Cassiquiare, the great band that extends to both sides of the Orinoco, rising almost to the stream of Guaharibos occupy thousands of km ² of flat land that drain their waters into the North at Hoya del Orinoco, or south on the Hole of Black River, with an average slope of 2%.
The highest parts or headers in this region forming a great valley, bordering with Brazil are in the mountain ranges of Parime Curupira Tapira-sinned, until stopped abruptly in the mountains of La Neblina, which lies almost entirely within the country and its great height can be grouped with the other major elevations of the Amazon, as Marahuaca 3,000 mt., in La Neblina 3,050 mt Phelps peaks., Zuloaga 2,800 mt., Cardona 2,650 mt. Cerro Duida with 3 major peaks, the highest of 2,332 mt., The Guanay 2,300 mt., The Yaví 2,285 mt., In the Cordillera del Sipapo several, one of the highest in the Parare 1,650 mt., Other relatively important are: Cerro Avispa 1,600 mt., L.600 Huachamacare mt., Yapacana 1,300 mt., the Autana Family, which rises like a giant column just over 1,000 mt. The Asisa 1,665 mt.
The temperature varies with height, but in the lowland areas, which are the most extensive, as in the case of Puerto Ayacucho, the average is 28 ° C, and in San Carlos de Rio Black is 26.5 ° C annual averages. Also varies with the seasons of drought or rain, noticing during the months of June and July relatively low temperatures, in the season of more heavy rains.
The terrain in the North and West of the country consists of ridges, but on Amazon the form true solid separated by great distances.
Among the most comprehensive and scientific studies have been made of the state of Amazonas, in all respects, are those of the Southern Development Commission of Venezuela (CODESUR). Amazon Atlas took the following paragraphs on Geo-physical conditions.
"This region is part of the Brazilian Archean shield, whose base is formed by rocks of Precambrian age, such as the Amazon granitic complex (over 2,000 million years ago) and granite Parguaza (1,500 million years). Erosional processes acting on the shield, allowed accumulation in some places of the same, of powerful layers of sediments, which were subject to changes and transformations arise Roraima formation ".
"The landforms belonging to the Roraima formation were subsequently intruded by granites, gabbros and diabase in the form of dikes, sills and laccoliths, causing metamorphism and mineralization zones. These intrusions have provided support to the residual forms of that training. "
"The existing geological conditions, the long action of erosion and climatic conditions have allowed the formation of a set of landscapes, reliefs and forms of original features."
"Precambrian granitic massifs, which are generally witness to ancient erosion surfaces. Few of them as Unturan plateau Tapira-sinned, retained considerable tracts of the original surfaces, while others, like Parguaza massif and the Sierra Parime only offer relict ".
"Thrust Roraima formation or residual forms presented as surrounded by steep uplands reaching over 1,000 meters, which dominates the reliefs neighbors. In these solid product forms are observed pseudo-karst actions or disoluci6n. Among the representatives of these massifs have Duida hills, Paru and Autana".